Korean Vowels (모음) Set 1

Letter Romanization Pronunciation Tips
a  as in hot
 ya  as in yacht
 eo  as in up
 yeo  as in yup
 i  as in meet

Korean Study Tips

♦   There are vertical and horizontal Korean vowels.

♦   Vertical vowels are placed to the right of the first consonant in a syllable. ex. 가, 냐,더

♦   A vowel is always the second letter in a Korean syllable.

♦   All vowels with two smaller lines attached are pronounced with a “y” sound. ex. ㅕ, ㅑ

♦   Make flash cards following the example of “ㅏ” on one side and “a as in hot” on the other side.

Korean Consonants (자음) Set 1

 Letter Romanization Name Pronunciation Tips
k/g 기역  If ㄱ follows a syllable that ends in a vowel or the letters ㄴ, ㄹ, ㅁ, or ㅇ, then ㄱ is pronounced as “g” ex. 나가 = naga, 감기 = kamgi
n 니은  as in no
t/d 디귿  If ㄷ follows a syllable that ends in a vowel or the letters ㄴ, ㄹ, ㅁ, or ㅇ, then ㄷ is pronounced as “d” ex. 가다 = kada, 먹다 = mukda
r/l 리을  If ㄹ is in the ending position of a syllable and a consonant starts the next syllable, then ㄹ is pronounced as “l” ex. 살다 = salda

If ㄹ is between two vowels, then ㄹ  is pronounced as “r” ex. 나라 = nara

m 미음  as in my
p/b 비읍  If ㅂ follows a syllable that ends in a vowel or the letters ㄴ, ㄹ, ㅁ, or ㅇ, then ㅂ is pronounced as “b” ex. 나비 = nabi, 갈비 = kalbi
s/sh 시옷  If ㅅ is followed by ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ, ㅟ, orㅣ, then ㅅ is pronounced as “sh”

 Korean Study Tips

♦   To start, just focus on how Korean Hangul letters look and what their equivalent pronunciations are.

♦   Make flash cards following the example of “ㄱ” on one side and “k/g” on the other side.

♦   Knowing when to pronounce k or g (ㄱ), t or d (ㄷ), r or l (ㄹ), p or b (ㅂ), and s or sh (ㅅ) is even difficult for long time Korean language learners. Many times it sounds like a mix of the two pronunciations.

♦   Even if you mix up the pronunciations of k or g (ㄱ), t or d (ㄷ), r or l (ㄹ), or p or b (ㅂ), Koreans can often still understand.

♦   The pronunciation tip for ㅅ is important as [s] and [sh] sound fairly different.

♦   When the consonants ㄷ or ㅅare placed as the final consonant(받침) of a syllable, they are pronounced as “t” ex. 낟 = nat, 맛 = mat

Korean Consonants and Vowels Set 1

 
kakyakeokyeoki
nanyaneonyeoni
dadyadeodyeodi
raryareoryeori
mamyameomyeomi
papyapeopeopi
sashyaseoshyeoshi

 Three Letter Syllables with Vertical Vowels

The final consonant of a syllable is called a bachim(받침).

If a consonant is added after a vertical vowel, the final consonant(받침) goes directly below the first two letters. ex. 간, 덜, 밥

 
갿
먿믿
릿

Korean Study Tips

♦   Not all of the syllables in this table are used in words.

♦   Please remember that the pronunciation of ㅅ is “s” or “sh” depending on what vowel follows it.

♦  For this reason, you should spend a little more time on ㅅ.

♦   Remember when the consonants ㄷ or ㅅare placed as the final consonant(받침) of a syllable, they are pronounced as “t” ex. 낟 = nat, 맛 = mat

 My First Korean Words

Word Romanization English Translation
시간 shigan time
pi rain
라면 ramyeon ramen noodles
dal moon
사람 saram person
pam night
머리 meori head

Go to Part 2 – Korean Consonants and Vowels Set 2

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